Rock coasts are erosional environments which form as a result of the landward retreat of bedrock at the shoreline. Vertical faces plunging into deep water form imposing cliffs on many shorelines. Other cliff forms may be steeply sloping, but no strict definition delineates a slope from a cliff. In many instances the retreat of the cliff leads to the formation of a rock ledge, or shore platform, at or close to sea-level. The surface of these platforms may be either subhorizontal or slope gently in a seaward direction.
Rock coasts have been considered a neglected coastal landform (Trenhaile 1980, 2002; Stephenson 2000). The two seminal books on the topic (Trenhaile 1987; Sunamura 1992) were written over two decades ago and they still form a core academic source which people refer to when seeking to understand the morphology and dynamics of rocky coasts. In the past decade there has been growing interest in rock coasts; however, the subdiscipline is still in its infancy when compared with other landform systems such as sandy beaches, rivers or glaciers. Much of the recent research is focused on a case-study approach, with small teams of researchers using their local field sites to infer wider morphological models of platform or cliff systems.
A major driver for the growing interest in the rocky coast has been the advent of new and emerging technology that enables us to address problems not previously accessible and at scales not previously achievable. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries scientific investigation was observational and lacked quantitative data (Dana 1849; Bartrum 1926). Such qualitative descriptions of the rocky coast continued into the mid twentieth century, when quantitative data from field surveying became the norm. The use of techniques for measuring rock hardness, such as the Schmidt hammer, developed soon after (Goudie 2006), but it is in the last decade that the greatest advances in technology have been made. The development of laser surveying, which can be operated from aerial and terrestrial platforms, has greatly increased our understanding of these landform systems (Kennedy 2013). Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) techniques now are able to survey landforms to centimetre scale from the air (Lim et al. 2005; Palamara et al. 2007) and can also penetrate the water column, allowing seamless surveying of the subaerial and submarine portions of the coast (Kennedy et al. in press). Terrestrial laser scanners can produce digital elevation models of cliff and platform systems to millimetre scale and have been used for monitoring both long- and short-term cliff retreat in the UK (Lim et al. 2005; Chapter 3 by Lim 2014). The sheer volume of data that can now be collected is unprecedented. These data, which give a very precise indication of morphology at the time of survey, can now be combined with other techniques such as micro-erosion metres to provide data on rates of erosion at the millimetre scale from hourly to decadal timescales (Stephenson et al. 2004; Trenhaile 2006).
The process-side of morphodynamics has been particularly neglected in the discipline. Wave-tank experiments were undertaken in the mid-late twentieth century, mainly in Japan (Chapter 12 by Sunamura et al. 2014), but also in Australia (Chapter 14 by Kennedy 2014); however, it is only in the past decade that field experimentation has started to precisely quantify energy transfers on the shore and resulting sediment movement. This more quantitative approach has been driven by a new generation of researchers taking advantage of new technologies, particularly the miniaturization of sensors, greater computing memory capacity and increased battery life. As a result, the transformation of wave energy from gravity to infragravity frequencies is now being quantified through field deployments of pressure sensors (e.g. Ogawa et al. 2011; Marshall & Stephenson 2011; Beetham & Kench 2011) and individual pebbles traced in the littoral zone using radio-frequency identification tags (e.g. Benelli et al. 2012). The result is that researchers are now starting to identify and quantify erosion processes at different spatial and temporal scales.
The unprecedented level of data quality and quantity that can now be collected produces its own challenges for coastal researchers. Specifically, how does the data scale from, and between, the local to regional level? How applicable are measurements of micron-scale change of a rock surface to understanding the regional evolution of a rocky coast? In part, such questions are related to the dominant processes driving landscape evolution. For example, in areas where wave plucking of the bedrock is the dominant erosive process, the millimetre-scale granular disintegration and water layer weathering may be less important. How quickly the joints themselves are eroded is however critically important as this can determine how quickly wave quarrying can take place (Paris et al. 2011). On the other hand, if the bedrock is homogenous and grain disintegration is the primary mechanism of platform erosion (e.g. Kaikoura, New Zealand) then the micro-scale surface downwearing is critically important (Stephenson & Kirk 1996). The challenge for researchers is therefore both to understand the scale of their particular study and to contextualize it within the boundary conditions of the system (Naylor & Stephenson 2010). Such a task can be very complex, particularly when investigating a new area where the boundary conditions are unknown.

Boundary conditions

The evolution of rocky shore landforms is driven by the action of subaerial, biological and marine processes. Subaerial weathering breaks down the bedrock by either directly removing material or making it more susceptible to erosion by marine processes, namely waves and tides. Biological activity is complicated by virtue of being erosive, protective and constructive, or a variety of combinations of each type. Biological activity is also closely interlinked with other weathering and erosive agents (Chapter 5 by Coombes 2014). The present-day form of a shoreline is therefore dependent on the balance between the assailing forces of erosion and the resisting forces of the bedrock. On shorelines where the bedrock is highly resistant to forcing agents, such as those composed of basalt, plunging cliffs may occur (e.g. Chapter 13 by Dickson & Stephenson 2014). In instances where the bedrock is highly erodible, such as in mudstone, sloping platforms are more common.
Predicting the form and evolutionary direction of a rock coast based on their formative processes is, however, difficult. In fact it is becoming apparent that rock coasts evolve through a range of differing, and contrasting, processes (Naylor et al. 2010). As described above, the suite of processes that dominate landform evolution in a given location are modulated by the external boundary conditions (e.g. sea-level history, climate and tidal range). The rate of variation within the boundary conditions is significant over large spatial scales, such as between countries or hemispheres, but on a regional level or local scale the variation in boundary conditions is often much less. For example, frost and ice comprise a significant geomorphic agent on cliffs and shore platforms developed in high latitudes (Chapter 16 by Hansom et al. 2014), but it are irrelevant at low latitudes. Tides are another major boundary condition. For example, Japan (Chapter 12 by Sunamura et al. 2014), New Zealand (Chapter 13 by Dickson & Stephenson 2014) and southern Australia (Chapter 14 by Kennedy 2014) are microtidal, which leads to the development of semi-horizontal rock platforms, while eastern Canada (Chapter 8 by Trenhaile 2014a) is predominantly macrotidal and intertidal rocky surfaces which slope at greater than 5° are found. The distribution of wave and weathering processes across these varied sloped surfaces is very different which means that direct comparisons of landform evolutionary models are not always appropriate; however, models of landform change developed in these regions can have applicability for those areas with similar tidal range. In addition, rocky landforms may evolve over multiple eustatic cycles, which means the magnitude of the erosive process may change significantly through time (Trenhaile 2001).
Significant variations in coastal morphology can occur as a result of variations in another major boundary condition – the geology. Both rock mass and rock material properties exert major controls on rock coastal processes (Naylor et al. 2012). The effects of geology are most obvious when crossing from one geological unit to another in the same region. For example, along the Great Ocean Road of Victoria, Australia, low cliffs and shore platforms are common on the Cretaceous sandstones, but adjacent to this unit, on Cenozoic limestones, high cliffs fronted by narrow beaches, arches and stacks are common (Fig. 1.1a, b). On the smaller scale of a single outcrop alternating beds of lithologies of different hardness can dominate the micro–mesoscale relief of a shore platform forming a stepped (Fig. 1.1c) or washboard morphology (Fig. 1.1d). Geological control on rock coast erosion and evolution is often complex, especially when other parameters can exert a stronger control than lithology. For example, rock mass properties (i.e. discontinuities) were found to exert a much stronger control on erosion processes than the rock type itself when comparing limestones and dolerite (Cruslock et al. 2010). Here the rocks with more similar structural properties (but different lithology) produced similar erosion products despite having different boundary conditions (i.e. waves and ice).
Fig. 1.1. (a) Platforms and low cliffs formed in Cretaceous sandstones near Lorne, Australia. (b) High vertical cliffs fronted by narrow beaches characterize the rock coast of the 12 Apostles region of Victoria, Australia where Cenozoic limestones dominate the shore. (c) A stepped shore platform morphology on Lord Howe Island, Australia where more resistant basaltic dykes intrude between softer breccia units. (d) A classic washboard morphology of a shore platform in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand. Harder sandstone units interbedded with softer mudstones project above the platform surface.
The variations in boundary conditions pose difficulties for the creation of holistic models of landform development as the conditions in which one shore platform or cliff form will be very different from place to place, region to region and through time. This has led to many of the significant debates within the subdiscipline. It also means that problems arise when relationships, such as between wave energy and platform width, or the dynamics of platform lowering measured in one area are applied in another location. The original inferences are often correct, but their application in areas with a different set of boundary conditions can yield contradictory results.
The opportunity to understand and develop holistic models of rocky coast evolution therefore becomes greatest when shorelines with similar boundary conditions are compared. This often occurs at a regional level as climate and tidal range tend to have greater similarity at this spatial scale, although as advocated by Stephenson (2000), collaboration should still also occur across regional boundaries for a holistic understanding of the global rocky shore.


Rock coast landforms are by definition found at the shoreline; sea-level is therefore a fundamental boundary condition (Chapter 2 by Trenhaile 2014b). However, the position of the sea is not constant over the millennial timescales of rocky shore evolution. Rocks of high erosional resistance tend to erode over multiple eustatic cycles with multistoreyed cliffs often being the resultant landscape form (Fleming 1965). For platforms, significant inheritance can occur between sea-level cycles with many shores bearing the imprint of higher sea-level during the Last Interglacial period and in some cases the penultimate interglacial such as seen on the Australian coast (Chapter 14 by Kennedy 2014). There are also suggestions that many of the subhorizontal platforms that characterize microtidal shorelines have been primarily cut during the mid Holocene highstand (Trenhaile 2010). On a global scale local Holocene sea-level history is strongly affected by vertical land movement related to glacial rebound, tectonic movements and hydro-isostacy. The north of the northern hemisphere is dominated by glacial rebound from the last Glacial Maximum, while the central Pacific is considered a truly eustatic signature being characterized by a c. +1 m highstand around 5–6 ka (Pirazzoli 1991).


The geology in which cliffs and shore platforms are formed is fundamental to determining both how fast they erode but also the form that they will take. The role of geology includes many factors, such as the rock type, mineralogy, jointing and bedding. In general harder rocks form higher cliffs or platforms at greater elevation. Rock hardness does not, however, imply a certain erosional resistance. This is because fractures and jointing will provide lines of weakness in the rock, which increases its susceptibility to erosion. The degree of jointing and fracturing not only affects the amount of erosion (Kennedy & Dickson 2006), but it also influences the products of erosion (Stephenson & Naylor 2011). This is especially the case for coastal settings dominated by storms where large accumulations of boulders may occur. The size of individual boulders and the volumes of these deposits can often be directly related to the jointing and fracturing of the bedrock in the area where they are found (Paris et al. 2011; Stephenson & Naylor 2011).
It is also often the case that on a particular stretch of coastline many different lithological units will outcrop, each with their own unique geotechnical properties. The orientation of the bedding planes, both vertically and horizontally, will have a strong influence on different landforms that emerge as softer materials are eroded preferentially to harder ones, as seen on the rock coasts of the USA and Mexico (Chapter 9 by Hapke et al. 2014) as well as South America (Chapter 10 by Blanco-Chao et al. 2014). Gulches and sea caves are often formed in this manner through the preferential erosion of weaker units (Trenhaile 1987).
The hydrogeology of a particular section of coast can also drive its evolution. Groundwater can be concentrated within specific lithological units based on their permeability and porosity and in turn this influences the erosional resistance of the bedrock and its geotechnical strength. In some areas, such as the soft-rock cliffs of France (Chapter 6 by Gómez-Pujo et al. 2014) and the UK (Chapter 3 by Lim 2014), groundwater flow can determine the nature and timing of cliff collapse and hence shoreline retreat (Duperret et al. 2005; Castedo et al. 2012).


Climate, particularly temperature and humidity, strongly influences the mechanisms of physical, biological and chemical weathering. In the tropics, terrestrial weathering profiles are often deep, which in turn lowers the erosional resistance of subaerial rocks (Nott 1994). Higher latitudes, on the other hand, tend to have lower rates of chemical erosion but high rates of physical erosion. Ice, in the form of frost as well as sea ice, can dominate rock coast erosion in the polar regions (Chapter 16 by Hansom et al. 2014); however these processes do not occur close to the equator in our current climate (Chapters 10 by Blanco-Chao et al. 2014 and 15 by Woodroffe 2014). The effect of these climatic gradients is expressed most obviously by the landforms created on carbonate lithologies. In the classic study of Guilcher (1953), he noted that cliffs in the tropics were characterized by deep notches and overhanging visors, while in the warm Mediterranean (Chapter 7 by Furlani et al. 2014) the notches were less distinct. In temperate Britain (Chapters 3 by Lim 2014 and 4 by Moses 2014), profiles tend to lack notches and slope seaward rather than being vertical. Weathering is not, however, the sole reason for this change in form; other boundary conditions such as waves and tides are also important.

Tides and wind wave

Rock coasts occur in a range of tidal environments. In macrotidal environments (such as Canada, Chapter 8 by Trenhaile 2014a), platforms tend to slope seaward while microtidal areas (Chapters 11–14 by Choi & Seong 2014; Sunamura et al. 2014; Dickson & Stephenson 2014; Kennedy 2014 respectively) are characterized by subhorizontal forms (Trenhaile 1987). Wind–wave processes on the other hand greatly influence the rates of erosion that can occur through physical destruction of the rock. This is most often represented in the presence of boulder debris, which is more common in the high-latitude storm belts (see Chapters 3 by Lim 2014 and 7 by Furlani et al. 2014).

Aim of this volume

The purpose of this Memoir is to bring together the global research of the past couple of decades alongside the established theories and debates within the discipline. Each chapter within the Memoir is structured around the boundary conditions and forcing factors of the region in which the chapter is based. The focus of the chapters is also framed within the key methodologies of the researchers that have focused their attention in those regions. For example, field surveying is core to Australian studies (Chapter 14 by Kennedy 2014) while hydrodynamic modelling and cosmogenic dating has characterized Japanese (Chapter 12 by Sunamura et al. 2014) and Korean (Chapter 11 by Choi & Seong 2014) work, respectively. For the British Isles the breadth and depth of information has meant that separate chapters are included to cover cliffs (Chapter 3 by Lim 2014), shore platforms (Chapter 4 by Moses 2014) and weathering and biologic processes (Chapter 5 by Coombes 2014). The conclusion of the volume (Chapter 17 by Naylor et al. 2014) seeks to identify and synthesize the key messages emerging from the volume and to identify future research needs.


Bartrum J. A. Abnormal shore platforms Journal of Geology 1926 34 793-807
Beetham E. P., Kench P. S. Field observations of infragravity waves and their behaviour on rock shore platforms Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 2011 36 1872-1888
Benelli G., Pozzebon A., Bertoni D., Sarti G. An RFID-based toolbox for the study of under- and outside-water movement of pebbles on coarse-grained beaches IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 2012 5 1474-1482
Blanco-Chao R., Pedoja K., et al., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of South and Central America Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 155-191 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Castedo R., Murphy W., Lawrence J., Paredes C. A new process–response coastal recession model of soft rock cliffs Geomorphology 2012 177–178 128-143
Choi K. H., Seong Y. B., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of Korea Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 193-202 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Coombes M., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of the British Isles: weathering and biogenic processes Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 57-76 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Cruslock E. M., Naylor L. A., Foote Y. L., Swantesson J. O. H. Geomorphic equifinality: a comparison between shore platforms in Höga Kusten and Fårö, Sweden and the Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales, UK Geomorphology 2010 114 78-88
Dana J. D., Wilkes C. Geology United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 1849 New York Geo. P. Putnam 442
Dickson M. E., Stephenson W. J., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of New Zealand Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 225-234 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Duperret A., Taibi S., Mortimore R. N., Daigneault M. Effect of groundwater and sea weathering cycles on the strength of chalk rock from unstable coastal cliffs of NW France Engineering Geology 2005 78 321-343
Fleming C. A. Two-storied cliffs at the Auckland Islands Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 1965 3 171-174
Furlani S., Pappalardo M., Gómez-Pujol L., Chelli A., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of the Mediterranean and Black seas Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 89-123 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Gómez-Pujo L., Pérez-Alberti A., Blanco-Chao R., Costa M., Neves S., Del Río L., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of continental Europe in the Atlantic Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 77-88 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Goudie A. S. The schmidt hammer in geomorphological research Progress in Physical Geography 2006 30 703-718
Guilcher A. Essai sur la zonation et la distribution des formes littorales de dissolution du calcaire Annales de Géographie 1953 62 161-179
Hansom J. D., Forbes D. L., Etienne S., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coasts of polar and sub-polar regions Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 263-281 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Hapke C. J., Adams P. N., et al., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of the USA Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 137-154 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Kennedy D. M., Switzer A. D., Kennedy D. M. Topographic field surveying in geomorphology Methods in Geomorphology 2013 14 San Diego, CA Academic Press 110-118
Kennedy D. M., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of Australia Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 Geological Society, London, Memoirs 235-245
Kennedy D. M., Dickson M. E. Lithological control on the elevation of shore platforms in a microtidal setting Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 2006 31 1575-1584
Kennedy D. M., Ierodiaconou D., Schimel A. Granitic coastal geomorphology: applying integrated terrestrial and bathymetric LiDAR with Multibeam sonar to examine coastal landscape evolution Earth Surface Processes and Landforms in press
Lim M., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of the British Isles: cliffs Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 19-38 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Lim M., Petley D. N., Rosser N. J., Allison R. J., Long A. J. Digital photogrammetry and time-of-flight laser scanning as an integrated approach to monitoring cliff erosion The Photogrammetric Record 2005 20 109-129
Marshall R. J., Stephenson W. J. The morphodynamics of shore platforms: interactions between waves and morphology Marine Geology 2011 288 18-31
Moses C. A., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of the British Isles: shore platforms Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 39-56 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Naylor L. A., Stephenson W. J. S. On the role of discontinuities in mediating shore platform erosion Geomorphology 2010 114 89-100
Naylor L. A., Stephenson W. J. S., Trenhaile A. S. Rock coast geomorphology: recent advances and future research directions Geomorphology 2010 114 3-11
Naylor L. A., Coombes M. A., Viles H. A. Reconceptualising the role of organisms in the erosion of rock coasts: a new model Geomorphology 2012 157–158 17-30
Naylor L. A., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. Synthesis and conclusion to the rock coast geomorphology of the world Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 283-286 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Nott J. The influence of deep weathering on coastal landscape and landform development in the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia The Journal of Geology 1994 102 509-522
Ogawa H., Dickson M. E., Kench P. S. Wave transformation on a sub-horizontal shore platform, Tatapouri, North Island, New Zealand Continental Shelf Research 2011 31 1409-1419
Palamara D. R., Dickson M. E., Kennedy D. M. Defining shore platform boundaries using airborne laser scan data: a preliminary investigation Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 2007 32 945-953
Paris R., Naylor L. A., Stephenson W. J. Boulders as a signature of storms on rock coasts Marine Geology 2011 283 1-11
Pirazzoli P. A. World Atlas of Holocene Sea-Level Changes 1991 Amsterdam Elsevier
Stephenson W. J. Shore platforms: remain a neglected coastal feature? Progress in Physical Geography 2000 24 311-327
Stephenson W. J., Kirk R. M. Measuring erosion rates using the micro-erosion meter: 20 years of data from shore platforms, Kaikoura Peninsula, South Island, New Zealand Marine Geology 1996 131 209-218
Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. Geological controls on boulder production in a rock coast setting: Insights from South Wales, UK Marine Geology 2011 283 12-24
Stephenson W. J., Taylor A. J., Hemmingsen M. A., Tsujimoto H., Kirk R. M. Short-term microscale topographic changes of coastal bedrock on shore platforms Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 2004 29 1663-1673
Sunamura T. Geomorphology of Rocky Coasts 1992 Chichester John Wiley & Sons
Sunamura T., Tsujimoto H., Aoki H., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of Japan Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 203-223 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Trenhaile A. S. Shore platforms: a neglected coastal feature Progress in Physical Geography 1980 4 1-23
Trenhaile A. S. The Geomorphology of Rock Coasts 1987 Oxford Clarendon Press
Trenhaile A. S. Modelling the Quaternary evolution of shore platforms and erosional continental shelves Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 2001 26 1103-1128
Trenhaile A. S. Rock coasts, with particular emphasis on shore platforms Geomorphology 2002 48 7-22
Trenhaile A. S. Tidal wetting and drying on shore platforms: an experimental study of surface expansion and contraction Geomorphology 2006 76 316-331
Trenhaile A. S. The effect of Holocene changes in relative sea level on the morphology of rocky coasts Geomorphology 2010 114 30-41
Trenhaile A. S., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coast of Canada Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014a 40 125-136 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Trenhaile A. S., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. Climate change and its impact on rock coasts Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014b 40 7-17 Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Woodroffe C. D., Kennedy D. M., Stephenson W. J., Naylor L. A. The rock coasts of oceanic islands Rock Coast Geomorphology: A Global Synthesis 2014 40 247-261 Geological Society, London, Memoirs

Information & Authors


Published In

cover image Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Geological Society, London, Memoirs
Volume 4019 August 2014
Pages: 1 - 5


Published online: 25 July 2014
Published: 19 August 2014


Request permissions for this article.



David M. Kennedy* [email protected]
Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia
Wayne J. Stephenson
Department of Geography, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
Larissa A. Naylor
School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK


Corresponding author (e-mail: [email protected])

Metrics & Citations


Article Usage

Downloaded 518 times


Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citation of this publication.

Citing Literature

  • Constraints on long-term cliff retreat and intertidal weathering at weak rock coasts using cosmogenic 10 Be, nearshore topography and numerical modelling , Earth Surface Dynamics, 10.5194/esurf-11-429-2023, 11, 3, (429-450), (2023).
  • The Response of Sandstone Sea Cliffs to Holocene Sea-Level Rise by Means of Remote Sensing and Direct Surveys: The Case Study of Punta Licosa Promontory (Southern Italy), Geosciences, 10.3390/geosciences13040120, 13, 4, (120), (2023).
  • Late Holocene Cliff Retreat in Del Mar, CA, Revealed From Shore Platform 10 Be Concentrations and Numerical Modeling , Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 10.1029/2022JF006855, 128, 4, (2023).
  • Transgressive rocky coasts in the geological record: Insights from Miocene granitic rocky shorelines and modern examples, Sedimentary Geology, 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2023.106344, 446, (106344), (2023).
  • Anomalously large marine potholes on a submerged relict shore platform: The Eastern Cape shelf of SE Africa, Geomorphology, 10.1016/j.geomorph.2023.108673, 430, (108673), (2023).
  • See more

View Options

View options


View PDF/ePub

Get Access

Login Options

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.







Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Suggested Content

The Lyell Collection uses cookies

The Lyell Collection uses cookies. By continuing to use it you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more.