Research Article
16 September 2020

Classification of pyrite types using fractal and stepwise factor analyses in the Chah Zard gold-silver epithermal deposit, Central Iran

Publication: Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis
Volume 20
Pages 496 - 508

Abstract

The major target of this research is the classification of pyrite types using fractal and stepwise factor analyses in the Chah Zard ore deposit, Central Iran. The ore occurs within a breccia/vein type and the major ore mineral hosting gold mineralization is pyrite. In this study, data were selected using optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered electron observations as well as laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP–MS) analysis. Conventional interpretations represent four gold-bearing pyrite types of various textures including fractured and porous Py1, oscillatory-rimmed and simple-zoned Py2, colloform Py3 and inclusion-rich Py4. The stepwise factor process was performed on the centred log ratio (clr) transformed data in two phases and Au was grouped with As, Te, Ni and Co in the second factor from the second stage (F2-2). Also, C-N fractal modelling was performed on the As, Au, Te and F2-2 values, all of which demonstrate multifractal nature. Four populations were separated based on F2-2 values and the C-N log–log plot. The main gold mineralization starts from 32 ppm, 2.8%, 7.94 ppm and 1.26 for Au, As, Te concentrations and F2-2, respectively, based on the C-N fractal modelling. These values are correlated with inclusion-rich Py4 and simple-zoned and oscillatory-rimmed Py2. The results obtained in this study show that fractal interpretation of LA-ICP–MS data by stepwise factor analysis may provide a suitable tool for the recognition of ore mineralization in epithermal gold deposits.

Get full access to this article

Purchase, subscribe or recommend this article to your librarian.

Funding

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author contributions

PA: conceptualization (lead), methodology (lead), software (equal), supervision (equal), visualization (equal), writing – original draft (equal); HK: data curation (equal), formal analysis (lead), investigation (lead), methodology (equal), software (equal), validation (lead), writing – original draft (equal); MG: formal analysis (equal), project administration (lead), supervision (equal), writing – review & editing (lead); KZ: data curation (equal), funding acquisition (lead), methodology (equal), supervision (equal), writing – review & editing (supporting).

Data availability statement

All data exist in the article.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis
Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis
Volume 20Number 4November 2020
Pages: 496 - 508

History

Received: 16 May 2020
Revision received: 4 August 2020
Accepted: 5 August 2020
Published online: 16 September 2020
Published: November 2020

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Keywords

  1. epithermal gold
  2. pyrite types
  3. concentration-number (c-n) fractal model
  4. stepwise factor analysis
  5. Chah Zard
  6. Iran

Authors

Affiliations

Hossein Kouhestani
Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45195-313, Iran
Author Contributions: [Data curation (Equal)], [Formal analysis (Lead)], [Investigation (Lead)], [Methodology (Equal)], [Software (Equal)], [Validation (Lead)], and [Writing - Original Draft (Equal)].
Majid Ghaderi
Department of Economic Geology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-175, Iran
Author Contributions: [Formal analysis (Equal)], [Project administration (Lead)], [Supervision (Equal)], and [Writing - Review & Editing (Lead)].
Department of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Author Contributions: [Conceptualization (Lead)], [Methodology (Lead)], [Software (Equal)], [Supervision (Equal)], [Visualization (Equal)], and [Writing - Original Draft (Equal)].
Khin Zaw
CODES Centre for Ore Deposit and Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, Australia
Author Contributions: [Data curation (Equal)], [Funding acquisition (Lead)], [Methodology (Equal)], [Supervision (Equal)], and [Writing - Review & Editing (Supporting)].

Notes

*
Correspondence: [email protected]
Scientific editing by Scott Wood

Author Contributions

PA: conceptualization (lead), methodology (lead), software (equal), supervision (equal), visualization (equal), writing – original draft (equal); HK: data curation (equal), formal analysis (lead), investigation (lead), methodology (equal), software (equal), validation (lead), writing – original draft (equal); MG: formal analysis (equal), project administration (lead), supervision (equal), writing – review & editing (lead); KZ: data curation (equal), funding acquisition (lead), methodology (equal), supervision (equal), writing – review & editing (supporting).

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Article Usage

Downloaded 30 times

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citation of this publication.

Citing Literature

  • Combination of Machine Learning Algorithms with Concentration-Area Fractal Method for Soil Geochemical Anomaly Detection in Sediment-Hosted Irankuh Pb-Zn Deposit, Central Iran, Minerals, 10.3390/min12060689, 12, 6, (689), (2022).
  • Geomechanical zonation using multivariate fractal modeling in Chadormalu iron mine, Central Iran, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 10.1007/s10064-021-02558-y, 81, 1, (2022).
  • Mineral prospectivity mapping: a potential technique for sustainable mineral exploration and mining activities – a case study using the copper deposits of the Tagmout basin, Morocco, Geocarto International, 10.1080/10106049.2021.2017006, 37, 25, (9110-9131), (2021).
  • Mineral prospectivity modelling using singularity mapping and multifractal analysis of stream sediment geochemical data from the auriferous Hutti-Maski schist belt, S. India, Ore Geology Reviews, 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2021.104029, 131, (104029), (2021).
  • Study on the PTX Parameters and Fractal Characteristics of Ore-Forming Fluids in the East Ore Section of the Pulang Copper Deposit, Southwest China, Journal of Earth Science, 10.1007/s12583-021-1448-5, 32, 2, (390-407), (2021).

View Options

Get Access

Login Options

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/ePub

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Suggested Content

The Lyell Collection uses cookies

The Lyell Collection uses cookies. By continuing to use it you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more.

Accept
×